The 2020 mission of the ExoMars programme will deliver a European rover and a Russian surface platform to the surface of Mars. A Proton rocket will be used to launch the mission.
During launch and cruise phase, a carrier module (provided by ESA with some contributions from Roscosmos) will transport the surface platform and the rover within a single aeroshell. A descent module (provided by Roscosmos with some contributions by ESA) will separate from the carrier shortly before reaching the Martian atmosphere.
Descent module consists of aeroshield and back shield to protect the spacecraft from heat, two parachutes to damp the speed down to subsonic, when landing module can be detached. The latter will perform soft landing using thrusters.
After landing, the rover will egress from the platform to start its science mission. The primary objective is to land the rover at a site with high potential for finding well-preserved organic material, particularly from the very early history of the planet. The rover will establish the physical and chemical properties of Martian samples, mainly from the subsurface. It is expected to travel several kilometres during its mission.
After the rover leaves the platform, the instruments onboard surface platform (provided by Roscosmos, developed by Lavochkin Space Association) will start scientific program. Its main target is to monitor regular processes, which have different temporal patterns, from diurnal to annual, for 1 martian year (1,8 Earth year).
IKI's contribution to the Pasteur rover is:
IKI is also a head organization for scientific payload onboard surface platform. Its main objectives are:
- Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) to be installed on the rover's beam. It will be used to assess the mineralogical composition of surface targets. Working with PanCam, ISEM will contribute to the selection of suitable samples for further analysis by the other instruments.
Principal Investigator: Oleg Korablev, Space Research Institute (IKI), Moscow, Russia
- Adron-RM neutron detector To search for subsurface water and hydrated minerals. Adron will be used in combination with WISDOM to study the subsurface beneath the rover and to search for suitable areas for drilling and sample collection.
Principal Investigator: Igor Mitrofanov, Space Research Institute (IKI), Moscow, Russia.
Total mass of scientific payload for these goals is about 50 kg. Preliminary set of scientific instruments includes TV-system, soil sampler, meteorological suit, neutron spectrometer, Fourier spectrometer, mass spectrometer with laser ablation (to study surface's elemental composition), gas-analytical suit to study the dynamics of trace components of the Martian atmosphere near the surface, laser spectrometer for atmosphere composition studyies, seismometer, dust suit, soil radiometer, and an instrument to study electromagnetic emissions on the surface.
- long-term climate observations in the landing site;
- study of Martian atmosphere composition;
- study of surface-atmosphere interactions;
- study surface composition;
- study Mars's internal structure;
- radiation environment monitoring as well as other factors.
Final set of instruments will be defined after the results of international contest and the assessment of resources available.
Optical module of Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) for Pasteur rover (ExoMars 2020 mission) (c) IKI
Adron-RM for Pasteur rover (ExoMars 2020 mission). General view (c) IKI