Main planetology and astrophysics  scientific tasks of gamma-spectrometry GRS and detector  HEND

 Scientific task

Expected Result

The origin of Mars

The ratio of natural radioactive isotopes 19K/92U will allow to estimate the temperature of proto-planetary cloud in the point of Mars creation

Evolution of Martian surface

Global map of main planetary elements on Mars will allow to understand the processes of surface formation

Abundance of main elements at valleys and at plateaus will allow to determine their ages

Abundance of main elements in vicinity of volcano allows determining the character of eruption activity.

Water as a factor of Mars global evolution, the presence of water and water ice under the surface in the present time

Distribution of water ice at polar caps will allow to understand the reason of difference between North and South poles

Localization and mapping of permafrost regions will allow to localize of spots with large amount of subsurface water ice on the Mars surface

Detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by interplanetary network 

Localization of cosmic gamma-ray bursts will allow to perform the investigation of their afterglow

Stereoscopic observations of gamma-rays and high energy neutrons of powerful solar flares

“Stereiscopic vision” of solar flares will allow to build the three-dimensional model of hard electromagnetic emission and corpuscular radiation in active regions of the Sun