MARS-96      ROBOTIC SPACECRAFT MISSION TO MARS. Brief description
Table of contents
Inroduction
Scientific goals
Scheme of the mission
Spacecraft
Orbiter
Payload of the Orbiter
Scientific goals of
the experiments
Description of
the instruments
Small Stations
Penetrators
Conclusion
SMALL AUTONOMOUS STATIONS

STUDY OF MARS AND ITS ATMOSPHERE WITH HELP OF TWO LANDERS

CONTENTS Main santific objetives: In the beginning of the chapter

studies of the vertical structure of the atmosphere and climate of Mars, the internal structure of Mars, the elemental surface composition, magnetic field, and seismic condition; TV imaging.

Scientific payloadIn the beginning of the chapter
  • Meteorology Instrument System (MIS) inluding temperature sensors, an absolute pressure sensor, a relative humidity sensor, an optical depth sensor and an ion anemometr;
  • descent phase instrument (DPI) system including an accelerometer, pressure and temperature sensors;
  • alpha-partical, proton and X-ray spectrometer;
  • seismometer, magnitometer and inclinometer (OPTIMIZM);
  • descent phase camera (DesCam).
  • panaramic camera (PanCam);
  • instrument for study of the presence of an oxidizing agent in the Martian soil and atmosphere (MOx).




The descent and landing profile of Small Station

Housekeeping system includes:In the beginning of the chapter
  • Station Data Processing Unit (SDPI) which should control station operations and data acquisition procedures;
  • telecommunication unit with a transmitter and a receiver for receiving commands and transmitting dara;
  • power-supply unit which comprises two radio-isotope thermogenerators, a battery, and electronics for controlling battery charge; a secondary power source;
  • automatic system (control battary, pirotechnick).

Main characteristics:In the beginning of the chapter

diameter of aerobraking screen100 cm
total mass 86 kg
payload mass 12 kg
mass of instruments 7 kg
active lifetime on the surface 360 days
data transmission rate 8 kbit/s

LandingIn the beginning of the chapte

The spacegraft carries two small autonomous stations, which will be separated 4-5 days before the landing, make their independent flight and then land at sites chosen in the 30-40 N zone.
Nominal coordinates for the landing sites small stations:
  • 37 N 162 W (for the small stations landing near penetrator )
  • 33 N 169 W.
CooperationIn the beginning of the chapter

Russia, Finland, France, Germany, USA.
Contact person: V.Linkin (PI) , linkin@mx.iki.rssi.ru

CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTIFIV INSTRUMENTIn the beginning of the chapter

METEOROLOGY INSTRUMENT SYSTEM MISIn the beginning of the chapter

Main characteristics:
Total mass415 kg
Power consumption 87,2 mV
Data capacity194,60 kbit/day

Temperature sensor:
Principle of operationcapacitance-type
Range1 to 350 K
Resolutionless then 0,1
Accuracyless then 0,5
The sensor is also used for temperature compensation during surface measurements of pressure and humidity.

Pressure sensor:
Principle of operationsilicon, caracitance-type
Resolution 0,005 mbar
Accuracy0,02 mbar
The sensor is mounted inside the probe on a circular plate.

Relative humidity sensor:
Principle of operationcaracitance-type
Range0 to 100 %
Resolution < 1% up to +20C
The sensor is mounted on the upper end of the boom.

Optical depth sensor:
Principle of operationcomparison of the invensity of the direct and scattered sunlight
Spectral range0,1 to 0,5 m
Resolution0,1%
The sensor is mounted outside at the station top with field of view in upper heliosphere.

Ion anemometer:
Principle of operationatmosphere ionization by HF discharge, ion current detection
Range0,3 to 30 m/s
Resolution0,2 m/s
The sensor is mounted at the upper end of the boom

Cooperation: Finland, France, Russia
Contact persons: R.Pellinen(PI) risto.pelline@fmi.fi
J.Blamont(Co-PI) fax: 33-1-44-767-865
V.Linkin (Co-PI) linkin@mx.iki.rssi.ru



DPI DESCENT PHASE INSTRUMENT In the beginning of the chapter

Three component Accelerometer
Principle of operationmagnetic/electrical with feedback
Range - 50g to +50g
Resolution > 10-3 g

The instrument is placed inside the station Pressure sensor:
Principle of operationresistive, mesurement of thermal conductivits of gaz inside selicon micro chamber
Range1 to 10 mbar
Resolution >5x10-2 mbar

Modes of operation - during descending under the parashute Temperature sensors:
with a platinum wire:
Range-196 to +500C
Resolution 0,1
with a nickel foil on a sisicon thin substrate
Range -196 to + 120
Resolution 0,2
The sensors is mounted on the boom.

Cooperation: Russia
Contact person: A.Lipatov (PI) slip@iki.rssi.ru


ALPHAIn the beginning of the chapter

ALHA-PARTICLE, PHOTON AND X-RAY SPECTROMETER

Main santific objetives:
Measurements of the elemental composition (begining with carbon) of Martian soils.

Method:
Recording of secondary neutrons scattered on niclei of Martian soil elements, excitation of X-ray fluorscence of a sample.

Main characteristics:
Energy range
- alpha-particles
- protons
- X-rays
0,6 keV - 6,5 MeV
0,6 keV - 6,5 MeV
1 - 22 keV
Dimensions
- sensor unit
- electronics unit
- booms
D5250
7010080
270
The sensor unit is mounted on the boom.

Cooperation Germany, Russia, USA.
Contact persons:R.Rieder (PI) , rieder@pallas.mpch-mainz.mpg.de
T.Economou (Co-PI), tecon@tecon.uchicago.edu
B.Andreichicov (Co-PI), tel. +7-095-333-2566



OPTIMIZMIn the beginning of the chapter

The OPTIMIZM instrument consists of a three-component magnetometer with an inclinometer on the boom, a vertical-component seismometer, an electronics unit

MAGNITOMETER

Main characteristics:
Dynamic range 8000 nT
Resolution 0,25nT
Measurement frequency
- three-component measurements
- measurements of magnetic-field variations within
every 30s
0,01 to 1 Hz

CooperationFrance, Germany, Russia
Contact person: .Menville (PI), michel@planeto.lps.u-psud.fr

SEISMOMETERIn the beginning of the chapter

Main characteristics:
Noise level (the period longer than 20s)1nm
Modes of operation:
1 movement velocity measurement:
- frequency range
- sensitivity
2 displacement measurement (with feedback):
- frequency range
- sensitivity


0,1 - 10 Hz
10-4 m/s

up to 5x10-2 Hz
1 nm
Dynamic range
- velocity measurement mode
- displacement measurement mode
10-9 to 6,410-5 m/s
1-0,1 to (6,4-0,64)10-4 nm
Interrogation frequency
-velocity measurement mode
- displacement measurement mode
8 to 1 interrogation/s
8 to 1/8 interrogation/s

Cooperation Contact person:
Contact person: P.Lognonne (PI), lognonne@ipgp.jussieu.fr


DesCamIn the beginning of the chapter

DESCENT PHASE CAMERA

Objective:
Imaging with a resolution of 20 m to 1 cm during parachute descent. 20 1 .

Main characteristics:
CCD camera500400 pixels
Mean power 3,5mW
Data capacity 16 MB
Mass
- optical unit
- electronics unit
150g
320 g

Cooperation Contact person:
Contact person: A.Lipatov (PI), slip@iki.rssi.ru
T.Hua (Co-PI)
J.Blamont, fax: 33-1-44-767-865



PanCamIn the beginning of the chapter

PANORAMIC CAMERA

Objective:
TV panorama of the Martian landscape around the small station.

Method:
Using a 60 lens an image of a portion of the Martian surface is a projected onto a vertical CCD-array (1024 pixels); the optical system is placed at the top of the station and is rotated by a step motor (6000 lines).

Main characteristics:
Spectral range 0.4 - 0,8 m
Image format60360 (10246000 pixels)
Focal lenght10 mm
Distancefrom 1 to
ADS10 bits, 10 to 40 kHz
Memory6 Mbit after compression
Min time for taking a panorama 0,5 to 1 hour
Mean time for taking a panorama1 panorama/10 days.
Power2 W
Mean power0,1 W
Mass200 g

Cooperation Finland, France, Russia
Contact person: V.Linkin(PI) linkin@vx.iki.rssi.ru
J.Blamont (Co-PI) fax: 33-1-44-767-865



MOxIn the beginning of the chapter

MARS OXIDANT EXPERIMENT

Objective:
Study of the presence of an oxidizing agent in the Martian soil and atmosphere that was inferred from the results of the biology experiments onboard the NASA Viking landers in the mid-1970s.

Instrument uses chemical sensor technology. The instrument measures the oxidizing powerm using a detector that monitors the change in reflectivity of a thin chemical film that is exposed to the Martian environment. The instrument's sensor headm is comprised of eight sensor cell assemblies, four of which are designed to contact the soil and four that will be exposed to the atmosphere. Each of the 96 sensor sites is illuminated by two light-emitting diodes, one operating at 590 nm and the other at 870 nm. The reflected signal will be measured by a silicon photodiode detector array..

Mass of the instrument is about 1 g.

Cooperation USA, Russia
Contact person:M. Herring, Herring@jpl.nasa.gov

Two additional items mounted on the Spall Stations:
  • Compact Disc (CD-ROM), included a library of science fiction stories, sounds and art which have inspired Mars exploration. Intended as symbolic gift for future human explorers.

    Cooperation Russia, The Planetary Society
    Contact person: L.Friedman, tps.ldf@mars.planetory.org

  • Microelctronics And Photonics Experiment (MAPEx): Plastic and silicon recording of incoming radiation; material placed on label for CD ROM on station petal. Label also has instructions for CD ROM.


  • Cooperation Russia, The Planetary Society
    Contact person: L.Friedman, tps.ldf@mars.planetory.org

    In the beginning of the chapterHome