Table of contents
Scientific goals
Scheme of the mission
Payload of the Orbiter
Scientific goals of
the experiments
Description of
the instruments
Small Stations


CONTENTS Main santific objetives: In the beginning of the chapter

  • imaging of the Martain surface;
  • data on meteorology of the planet;
  • chemistry of rocks;
  • water content in Martian rocks;
  • seismic activity of Mars;
  • physical and mechanical characteristics of Martian regolith;
  • magnetic field and magnetic properties of rocks.
Scientific payload:In the beginning of the chapter
  • TV-camera;
  • PEGAS gamma- spectrometer;
  • MEKOM meteopackage;
  • IMAP-6 magnetometer;
  • TERMOZOND thermoprobe;
  • ANGSTREM X-ray spectrometer;
  • NEUTRON-R neutron spectrometer;
  • ALPHA -p spectrometer;
  • RFMERTON seismometer;
  • GRUNT accelerometer;

Main characteristics:In the beginning of the chapter

entry velocity5,6 km/s
impact velocity 80±20 m/s
impact-induced overloading 500 g
maximum penetration depth 5 to 6 m
mass of penetrator 45 kg
mass of scientific package 4,5 kg
active lifetime 1 year
Power sources:
- RTG (based on Pu-238)
- Li-battary
10 A.h.
Data rate 8 kbit/s

Experiment program:In the beginning of the chapter

Penetrators are separated from the spacegraft 3 to 5 days prior to the encounter with Mars, and begin their autonomous flight; probes are transferred into a descent trajectory permitting their penetration to the selected areas of Mars. In the Martian atmosphere probes undergo aerodynamic braking, first using a rigid cone and then, air-inflated braking devic, until a given velocity is reached to provide their penetration into Martian regolith. A probe impacts with the surface at a velocity of 80 m/s with a separation of the forebody and afterbody.The penetrating part of the probe forebody carrying the scientific and housekeeping instrumentation tnters the regolith down to 506m, while the afterbody with the rest of the instrumentation remains on the surface. Scientific studies begin after penetration. Information is transmitted to the orbiter. Duration of a session is about 6 min.

Nominal coordinates for the landing sites of the penetranors:In the beginning of the chapte
  • 36° N and 161° W (for the penetrator landing near small stations).
  • 36° N and 125° W

Cooperation In the beginning of the chapter
Russia, Finland, Germany, Bulgaria, Roumania, Great Britain.
Contact person: Surkov Yu.A. phone +7- 095-137-4763 fax +7-095-939-0186


TVS TV-CAMERA In the beginning of the chapter

Main santific objetives:
  • получение панорамного изображения поверхности;
  • исследование процессов, происходящих в районах внедрения зондов, таких как эоловая активность, флювиальное воздействие на поверхность, вулканизм и т.д. (съемка в разные сезоны дает информацию о динамике этих процессов).
Main characteristics:
  • TV-panorama is provided with a camera, using CCD spectrozonal ruler.Each channel of CCD contain 2048 sensitive elements;
  • TV camera is mounted at 1 m distance above the surface;
  • the boundaries of spectrometric ranges:
    • blue region- 0,44 - 0,46 mkm;
    • green - 0,54 - 0,56 mkm;
    • red - 0,69 - 0,75 mkm;
    • near IR - 0,96 - 1,02 mkm.
  • imaging is performed at the vertical angle of view 60°;
  • imaging is performed by the optical and mechanical package of the camera rotating around the vertical axis of the penetrator;
  • time of measurements - 0,3 hour;
  • power comsumption 2,2 W;
  • mass - 1,2 kg;
Cooperation: Russia
Contact person: +7-095-137- 8627 E.I. Chumak, phone тел: 095-137-8627
MECOM METEO SET In the beginning of the chapter

is situ measurements of meteorogical parameters on the surface of Mars.

Method of measurements
Main characteristics:
  • temperature within 160 - 300 K, accuracy 0,5 K;
  • pressure within 4 -12 mbar, accuracy 0,2 mbar %;
  • wind velocity within 1 - 40 m/s. accuracy 0,4 m/s;
  • humidity within 5 to 100% relative humidity, accuracy 5%;
  • conditions of measurements first day - four times per 1 min, after - periodically (1 min two times per day);
  • power consumption 1,3 W;
  • mass 0,48 kg
Cooperation: Russia, Finland, USA
Contact person : V.N. Lebedev, phone +7-095-972-3664

PEGAS GAMMA-SPECTROMETER In the beginning of the chapter

to estimate the element composition of Martian surface rocks. Gamma-radiation recorded by the instrument permits to determine the H, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Th, U abundances in rocks.

Method of measurements is based on recording gamma-rays from natural radionuclides K,Th, U and nuclear interaction of cosmic rays with elements of Martian rocks.

Main performance characteristics:
radiation energy range0,3-9,0 MeV
energy resolution for E = 0,661MeVnot worse than 8%
measurement accuracy of the elemental composition of rocks:
- for major rock-forming elements
- for natural radionuclides
not worse than 5%
not worse than 7%
session time16,5 hours
power consumption1,6W
mass 1,3 kg

Cooperation: Russia
Contact person : L.P. Moskaleva, phone +7-095-939-7048

ANGSTREM X-RAY SPECTROMETER In the beginning of the chapter

to estimate the elemental composition of the subsurface rocks, including the abundance of the rock-forming elements (Mg, Al, Si, K, Cf, Ti, Fe), volatiles (S,Cl) and minor elements.
Method of measurements is based on the excitation of X-ray fluorescent radiation of rock sample using radioactive sources Fe-55 and Cd-109.

Main performance characteristics:
energy range 0,9-7,8 keV;3,0-24 keV
sensibility 0,2-0,5 W %
measurement duration 0,5hour
power consumption1,7 W
mass0,8 kg

Cooperation: Russia
Contact person: A.G. Dunchenko, phone +7- 095-939-7088

ALPHA ALPHA-P-SPECTROMETER In the beginning of the chapter

to estimate the element composition of the rocks, including the abundance of light elements (C, N, F) and major rock-forming elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Fe) in small-size soil sample.

Method of measurements is based on irradiation of the sample of Martian soil with -particles of an isotope sourse Cm-244 of 60 - 80 mCurie activity. The instrument records particle scattering spectra and secondary proton spectra..

Main performance characteristics:
energy range 0,8-6,3 MeV
sensitivity 0,1- 0,5 W.%
data transmission rate 10 kbit/s
measurement 16 hours
power consumption0,2 W
mass0,35 kg

Cooperation: Russia, Germany<Россия, Германия.
Contact person: H.Waenke(PI),

NEUTRON-P NEUTRON SPECTROMETER In the beginning of the chapter

to measure humidity and density of the rocks
Method of measurements is based on the recording of secondary neutrons scattered on the nuclei of rock elements. The humidity is determined in 0,3 m3 volume of rock.

Main characteristics:
energy range0,01 - 1 MeV
sensitivity of water determination0,1 W %
measurement duration 2,5 hours
power consumption0,25 W
mass0,2 kg

Cooperation: Russia
Contact person: O.P. Scheglov, phone +7- 095-137-8674
GRUNT ACCELEROMETER In the beginning of the chapter

Objective: to investigate mechanical characteristics are proposed to obtain:

  • resistance force / time;
  • velocity profile / time;
  • penetration profile and depth.
Method of measurementsis based on measurements of three components of strenght during the probe impact of the Martain rocks.

Main performance characteristics:
instrument sensor pyezo crystal
wave range3-10kHz
resistance measurement accuracy100 m/s
power consumption 0,1 с
measurement duration0,1 s
Cooperation: Russia, Great Britain Contact person: O.B.Khavroshkin, phone +7- 095-254-9991

TERM THERMOPROBE In the beginning of the chapter

thermal/physical study of surface layer of rocks:
  • heat capacity;
  • heat conductivity;
  • thermal diffusivity;
  • diurnal and seasonal penetration of thermal wave;
  • thermal flow from the planet/s interior.

Main performance characteristics:
sensorsplatinum thermocouples
accuracy of heat conductivity and heat capacity measurements5%
accuracy of absolute temperature measurements1 К
measurement duration first day - each 50 s;
after - each 1000 s
power consumption4 W

Cooperation: Russia
Contact person: A.S.Okhapkin, phone +7- 095-158-5865

KAMERTON SEISMOMETER In the beginning of the chapter

Objective: to study the structure of the planet's crust, its stratification and heteroqeneousness. Recording of seismic noise and natural oscillations of the planet will provide data on the inner structure and dynamics of the planet's interior.

Method of measurements is based on recording the seismic noise of the planet.

Main characteristics:
operating frequency range 10-90 Hz
measurement duration:
- first day - 60s;
- after - 1 time per min
power consumption 0,03 W
mass0,3 kg
Cooperation: Russia,Great Britain
Contact person: O.B.Khavroshkin, phone +7- 095-254-9991

IMAP-6 MAGNETOMETER In the beginning of the chapter


studies of Mars' intrinsic magnetic field, magnetic properties of rocks and their paleomagnetism
Method of measurements is based on recording three magnetometry components on the surface of Mars

Main characteristics:
sensibility 0,15 nT1
measurement durationswich on in duration 1min per hour
power consumption 0,8 W
mass 0,4 kg
Cooperation: Russia, Bulgaria
Contact person: L.N. Zhuzgov, phone +7- 095-334-0921

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