Space Research Institute

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Main research and development work completed in 2008 and ready for implementation

  • The humidity criterion for the El Nino development forecast is worked out on the basis of complex analysis of the global thermal fields series during 1995-2005 from electronic collection GLOBAL-Field (two global fields per day with resolution 0.5x0.5 over the surface) which was formed in IKI RAN on the basis of the Earth satellite monitoring (strip SSM/I data, DMSP program).

    The troposphere moisture content distribution (which is integral throughout the height of the water vapour quantity in the troposphere) co-ordinates well enough with El Nino dynamics, which influence on the structure of general atmospheric circulation and develop under the influence of it, i.e. El Nino dynamics are a good example of the direct and back casual communications in the system of ocean-atmosphere.
    El Nino develops in equatorial eastern zonal atmosphere flow of Pacific Ocean, but has more early display in the midlatitudes atmosphere dynamics in the western zonal flow perturbation. The tongue penetration depth of the dry cool air from the zone of South-Pacific atmospheric centeres of action to north-west visibly decrease during the periods of intense El Nino and can be used as a predictor of the development and intensity of this catastrophic natural phenomenon (the index of Southern oscillation is given for comparison on the graphic).


    Astafieva N.M. The monitoring and some possibilities of the forecast of the phenomenon El Nino on the basis of the Earth global radiothermal fields in microwave range//The 6th All-Russian open annual conference The up-to-date problems of the Earth remote probe from Space Moscow, IKI RAS 10-14th of November 2008. The collection of the theses of the conference. P.111.


  • Discovery of the repeated sea surface pollution as a result of Kerch disaster according to the information of the space SAR.

    12 ships were wrecked as a result of gale-strength wind and rough sea in Kerch Strait and in the Black Sea on 11th of the November 2007. The tanker Volgoneft-139, which transported 4777 tons of black oil broke in two parts and about 2000 tones of mineral oil poured out into the sea. Right away after the disaster the staff of the laboratory of the Aerospace radiolocation of the Earth research department from space IKI RAN was organized disaster consequences satellite monitoring with the help of radiolocation probe data: ASAR Envisat, Radardat, TerraSAR-X and ERS-2 SAR for the pollution scopes definition. The districts suffered from the largest pollution were discovered. The results of satellite data processing were comparing with the results of computational modeling executed by the GOIN staff and with official information. Carried out investigations proved that not only black oil from tanker Volgoneft-136 got into the sea after the storm, but also mineral oil from the other stranded ships, which tried to save their selves after the storm, pouring out ballast waters comprising mineral oil, and moreover, that is also possible, bunker fuel. During spring-autumn of 2008 in the framework of the operative satellite monitoring of the coastal waters condition and pollution in the sector of Black Sea and Sea of Azov the repeated sea surface pollutions were studying. The spring-summer sea water warming-up brought to the surfacing of the mineral oil settled at the bottom. Moreover, the tankers forebody with the mineral oil remains was staying at the place of the disaster till 13th of august 2008, and it also contributed to the constant sea surface pollutions. During the June-August 2008, the series of satellite radar images were received. The oil film from the disaster place was distinctly developed on it. These films spreaded to several kilometers under the wind and stream influence, were, in a sense, tracers, which let us to study circulating process in Kerch Strait. The most informative shots and their processing results are represented at the website http://www.iki.rssi.ru/asp/dep_moni.htm . In the framework of the expedition project RFFI 08-05-10081-k in September of 2008 ground-truth observations in Tamans creek and on Tuzla ness were carried out. The numerous pollutions of the southern Tuzla ness extremity with black oil, stranded after the disaster, were discovered.


    Generalized pollution map in Kerch Strait in June-August 2008. The speed and direction of the wind at a point of radiolocation survey are shown by spits.


    Lavrova O.Yu., the candidate of physico-mathematical sciences, 333-42-56, olavrova@iki.rssi.ru
    Lavrova O.Yu., Mityagina M.I., Karimova S.S., Strochkov A.Ya. Satellite monitoring of the catastrophic oil spill in the Kerch Strait // The Ninth Biennial Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC 2008), 2-6 December 2008, Guangzhou, China
    Olga Lavrova, Marina Mityagina and Tatiana Bocharova. Satellite monitoring of sea surface state of Russias coastal zone of the Black and Azov Seas. SeaSAR 2008. 21-25 January 2008, ESRIN, Frascati, Italy.
    Lavrova O.Yu., Bocharova T.Yu., Mityagina M.I., Strochkov A.Ya. Satellite monitoring of the catastrophic oil spill in the Kerch Strait. Theses of the 6th All-Russian open conference The up-to-date problems of Earth remote sensing from space. IKI RAN. Moscow, 10-14th of November 2008, p.194, 2008.



  • For the first time in 40 years after the appearance of non-binary codes (established as Reed-Solomon codes, RS) used only in digital technique, the special codes and q-ary multithreshold decoder (QMTD) were created for such non-binary codes. These QMTD give a possibility to provide at 3-7 decimal exponent more reliable data saving and at 2?4 decimal exponent faster data recovery in comparison with RS codes for arbitrary symbol size.. Results of this research have a level of discovery in the digital processing technique sphere. Offered QMTD turned out to be a great substitute of RS codes almost in all the spheres of symbolic codes use, in particular, in the Very Large specialized video- and audio- Database, including for the Earth remote sensing (ERS). At the same time the guaranteed recovery of any fragment from such bases at any possible not enough high data medium reliability, which are used now and in the foreseeable future, will be ensured.


    The sample of MTD decoder implementation.


    8 works were published on this topic in 2008th, and also a patent for useful model was taken out.
    You can find all these and a number of other articles of 2009 on these subjects at www.mtdbest.iki.rssi.ru.
    Doctor of Technical Science Zolotarev V.V.



  • The space weather influence on healthy and ill people.

    The magneto-sensitiveness of healthy people and patients, who suffer arterial hypertension and went through the treatment, was discovered. (The common database includes 143 people). The reaction of arterial pressure boost for 30 mmHg relatively to average which is typical for its individual. The ratio of the insensitive to magneto-sensitive from healthy people showed 40% to 60%. The magneto-sensitiveness of hypertensive patients showed 84%,at the time when there was 16% insensitive patients. The hypertensive patients reacted to geomagnetic storms with lag of 1-2 days, while healthy people reacted with short-term pressure build-up without lag. The forestalling reaction for one day, which was observed among several healthy people, was connected with magnetic storms, before which was the Sudden Commansmant (SC), caused by the bow shocks coming from the Sun to the Earth and by the increasing solar energetic proton concentration near the Earth. At the same time the ULF-index increase was observed, which characterized the intensity (the amplitude increase) of micropulsations in the range of Pc5. (MHz). Received results show that patients reaction to the space weather should be taken into consideration during the working out of the hypertension treatment measures and prophylaxis. The information about degree and character of individual sensitiveness to external factors is also of current importance for healthy people, whose functional duties are connected with constant attention effort and extreme responsibility electric-train machinists, plane pilots, air traffic controllers, nuclear station operators.

    Zenchenko T.A. (candidate of physic-mathematic sciences) and T.K.Breus (doctor of physic-mathematic sciences), telephone number 3333012, e-mail: breus36@mail.ru (joint participants ITEB RAS, STILL-BAS Bulgaria, Institute of the Earth physics RAS, I. Sechenovs Moscow medical Academy of Sciences, A.L.Miasnikovs Scientific Centre of Cardiology)
    Zenchenko T.A., Tzagareshvilly E.V., Oshepkova E.V., Rogoza A.N.,Breus T.K. To the questions of the geomagnetic and meteorological activity influence on the hypertensive patients. Clinical medicine, 2007, 1, p.31-35.
    Ozheredov V.A., Dimitrova S. Defining magnetosensitive people by forecasting based on Space weather conditions as a validation, Abst. 5-th European Space weather week, 17-21 Nov. 2008, p.61;
    Ozheredov V.A., Breus, T.K. Gurfinkel Y.I., Application of forecasting procedures to the quest of revealing influence factors hierarchy, Fundamental Space Research, Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, 21-28 Sept.2008, p.310-311.



    The Institute carried out research efforts and development activity under the tasks determined by the Russian Academy of Science, the thematic plans of the Institute and The Russian Federal Space Program. The main lines of the researches were:
    • Fundamental and applied investigations in the domain of the astrophysics and the radioastronomy.
    • Fundamental and applied investigations in the domain of the space plasma physics, the energetic (charged) particle physics, the physics of the Sun and solar-terrestrial connection physics
    • Fundamental and applied investigations of the planets and the small bodies (solids) of the Solar system
    • Fundamental and applied investigations of the Earth
    • Fundamental and applied investigations in the domain of the mechanics, control systems and informatics
    • The development of the research, construction and experimental foundation of the scientific space device construction and the methods of the experimental physics
    The Space Research Institute takes part in the Federal Space Program that is being formed by the RAS (Russian Academy of Science) Space Council and by the appropriate sections of this Council together with the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science took part in the Federal Space Agencys (FSA) projects, and also in the NASAs and European Space Agencys (ESA) projects, that are represented in the following list:

    Astrophysical investigations
    • SPECTRUM-XG (Federal Space Program (FSP)s project) - X-ray and gamma-observatory in the space. (Development activity)
    • INTEGRAL (ESA) - International Astrophysical Observatory. (At the stage of realization)
    Investigations of the planets and the small bodies (solids) of the Solar system
    • Phobos Sample Return Project - Phobos and Mars investigations, delivery to the Earth the examples of the Phobos ground. Development activity
    • HEND Instrument - MARS ODISSEY 2001 (NASAs project). Investigation of the neutron and gamma-emissions of the Mars surface and the gamma-emission in the interplanetary space. At the stage of realization
    • Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons - Mars Science Laboratory 2009 (NASAs project, 2009). On board the landing unit. Development activity
    • Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (NASAs project, 2008). Development activity
    • MARS-ESPRESS (ESAs project) - Investigations of Mars. At the stage of realization
    • Solar sail (Planet Society project) - Check-up the possibility of controlling a spacecraft by using the sunlight pressure on the large reflecting constructions (sails). Development activity
    • MER-1,-2 (NASAs project) Mossbauer spectrometer - Complex investigations of the Mars surface and atmosphere with the help of the orbital and landing units Spirit and Opportunity (participating in the NASAs mission Mars rover-2003)
    • VENUS-EXPRESS (ESAs project) - Venus investigations with the help of the Venus artificial satellite. Launching by the SOUZ/FREGAT launch vehicle (on the commercial base) in November 2005. At the stage of realization
    • BepiColombo (ESAs project) - Investigations of Mercury. Research effort
    Investigations of the Sun and solar-terrestrial connections
    • CORONAS-F (FSPs project) - Complex investigations of the Sun emission (Unmanned Multipurpose Space Station - S) (The head organization is P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute). At the stage of realization
    • RESONANCE (FSPs project) - Investigations of the artificial stimulation of the alven waveguide by the resonance of the closed magnetic (power) tubes of electric force on the low and middle latitudes. Development activity
    Furthermore the Institute conducted the projects that were not included in the Russian Federal Space Program and can be realized in the future. On some of them the investigations or preliminary technical studies were carried out. The investigations of the development of the information collection, transmission and processing systems and facilities were also continued.

    The Federal Space Program on 2006-2015 was accepted in October 2005. http://www.federalspace.ru/Science0615.asp