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"International planetary defense system "Citadel" – principles of construction"

A. S. Bashilov, M. Ya. Gofin, A. V. Zaitsev, S. N. Konyukhov, K. M. Pichkhadze, K. A. Pobedonostsev, V. A. Tikhonov


A Paper deals with the main principles of development and characteristics of a “Citadel” International Planetary Defense System (PDS) intended for the preventing of catastrophic collisions of the asteroids and comet nuclei with the Earth.

The PDS Projects provides, first of all, the development of the echelon of short-term (operational) reaction (STE) of the PDS, which will be in a state of the permanent readiness. It is intended for protection against relatively small (from tens to hundreds of meters) of the asteroids and nuclei of the extinct comet that sufficiently often collide with the Earth and can be detected only in few days, weeks or months prior to their encounter.

If necessary, on the basis of this echelon it will be possible sufficiently quickly develop the echelon of the long-term reaction (LTE) intended for repulse to the greater dangerous celestial bodies (DCB). The LTR will exist in the “virtual” form: as an international “Mobilization Plan of the Earth Defense”, providing the mobilization of all resources of the mankind: launch vehicles, spacecraft, space launch sites, etc. only for the case of arising of the threatening situation.

Thus, the PDS basis will comprise the STE, including the common international ground- space based service of detection and study of the DCB as well as the regional services of their interception. It is supposed to create the regional services by the unifying of the national means of states, possessing by the rocket-space and nuclear means, into two segments, for instance: Euro-Asiatic segment and American one. Their operation will be coordinated by corresponding Planetary Defense Centers.

A Paper expounds a schematic of construction and operation of the “Citadel” PDS.

The main role in the ground-space based service of operational detection is imposed on the “Cone” – space-borne observational segment. The “Torus” and “Sphere” systems will be used for in advance detection of the great asteroids and comets.

In order to update the geometrical, physical and other parameters of the DCB, it is planned to use the reconnaissance S/C.

The service of DCB interception is based on the rocket/space systems comprising the LV and interceptor S/C equipped by the nuclear, kinetic or others means of affect on the DCB.

The long-term echelon according the same schematic will carry out the interception of the great asteroids and comet nuclei at the great distances from the Earth.

A program of step-by-step creation of the “Citadel” PDS, providing the developmental work out of its main components in the framework of the international simulating and demonstration projects: “Detection”, “Interception” and “Space Patrol” is also presented. In the framework of the “Synthesis” international project it is proposed to develop the unified Spacecraft: observers, reconnaissance, interceptors and reconnoiters at the using of the best achievements of the word cosmonautics and taking into account a possibility of their launches by the Launch Vehicles of different countries, provision of the communication between them, guidance/control, etc. Their developmental flight tests could be carried out in the frameworks of international missions to the small bodies of the Solar System, for instance to the objects of type of the comets of  Hale-Bopp, Hyakutake etc.

For the Project budgeting it is proposed to organize the special Insurance Fund of the Mankind.