
12c. Venus transit (1) Newtonian Mechanics Index 13. Free Fall 14. Vectors 15. Energy 16. Newton's Laws 17. Mass 17a. Measuring Mass in Orbit 17b. Inertial balance 18. Newton's 2nd Law 18a. The Third Law 18b. Momentum 18c. Work 
Vectors as Extension of NumbersThe idea of numbers developed very gradually. First came positive integers 1,2,3... (not zero, a much more recent addition) to describe countable objects, such as sheep, days, tribe members, etc. The concept of negative numbers might have arisen as an extension of subtraction, or maybe from moneywhat you owed was negative wealth, red ink in the ledger. Objects which could be dividedfor instance, landbrought fractions. Then around 500 BC a student of Pythagoras proved that the number giving the square root of 2 could never be written as a fraction; it did not make sense to them, and therefore we still say these are "irrational" numbers. Between them, integers, fractions and irrationals can describe anything that has a size, a magnitude. But what can describe velocity, which has both a magnitude and a direction? A vector, that's what. Vector AdditionVelocities can be added. Suppose an airplane flies at 200 mph (or if you wish, kilometers per hour) with a tail wind of 40 mph. How fast does it cover distance on the ground? Easy: for every 200 miles it advances, the wind carries it 40 miles further, so the answer is 
Graphically, each stretch on the ground or velocity can be represented by an arrow in its direction, its length giving the magnitudefor instance, an arrow AB 200 mm (milimeters) long for the airplane's motion and another one BC 40 mm long, in the same direction, for the wind. To add velocities, put them end to end, as in the top figure here. So far this is just a complicated way of doing something obvious. What makes "arrow addition" useful is that it also holds when directions are different. Suppose the airplane flies into a headwind of 40 mph: we expect the velocity relative to the ground to beand the "arrow addition" (middle figure) confirms it. Next suppose the pilot's course is eastwards, but a 100 mph crosswind blows towards the northeast: in what direction does the airplane move, and how fast? Intuition does not help, but arrow addition does (bottom figure, not to scale). The general rule is, the combined velocities bring the airplane in an hour to the same spot as when first one motion, then the other, acts alone for an hour. As expected, the direction is somewhere between eastward and northward. All vectors can be added together in this waylike arrows, head to tail. There exists an alternate method, though, often easier to use, and it is described next. Resolving vectors into componentsJust as one can combine two vectors into onetheir sumso it is also possible to move in the opposite directiongiven a single vector, find two vectors whose sum it is.Suppose the given single vector is represented by the arrow AB in the drawing, and we wish to resolve it into the sum of two vectors directed along AA' and AA". We draw lines along AA' and AA" and also lines parallel to them from B, the other end of the vector. If AA' and AA" are perpendicular to each other (the usual case), then these lines enclose a rectangle ACBD, of which AB is a diagonal. It is now evident that AC and CB are a solution to our problem, and in vector addition
The Uses of Component VectorsResolving vectors into components can be very useful. Three examples are given below and more follow in section (22a).(a) Adding many vectorsSuppose it is required to add 10 vectors (yes, situations exist...). To perform it the way described earlier, one adds the first two vectors headtotail, then adds the third to their sum, then the fourth... tedious business!A faster way is to choose two perpendicular directions, and taking our cue from cartesian coordinates, one will be named here "the x direction" and the other "the y direction". Resolve each vector V into an "x component" V_{x} along the x direction and a "y component" V_{y} along the y direction. Now we have not 10 but 20 vectors which need to be added up, but the job is much easier. Of those vectors, 10 are lined up with the xdirection, and vectors in the same direction (like head and tailwind velocities in the earlier example of the airplane) add up like ordinary numbers. The same goes for the 10 vectors lined up with the ydirection. The problem is now reduced to two strings of ordinary additionas and subtractions (oppositely directed vectors have minus sign), and only the last stepadding together the grand totals in the x and y directionsrequires vectortype addition.
(B) Calculating a vector sumThe headtotail addition of vectors allows one to construct their sum graphically. Components allow it to be calculated.Take the earlier example of vector additionan airplane flying east at 200 mph (its airspeed, its velocity relative to the air), while a 100 mph wind blows towards the northeast. The vector addition triangle of this example is at the bottom of the first figure of this section. Let the xdirection be eastward and the ydirection northward. Then the (x,y) velocity components are, in mph,
This gives the total velocity V. By the theorem of Pythagoras,
giving the magnitude of V as approximately 280 mph, while the sharp angle at point A in the figure (we will name it A, too) satisfies
From which A is about 16.25 degrees. (c) The Inclined PlaneThis goes back to Galileo's experiment. Suppose we have a smooth incline sloping at an angle s (drawing below) and on it a wellgreased block, ready to slide down (Galileo used a rolling ball, with which the experiment is easier to perform but harder to calculate, since the kinetic energy is now divided between that of the sliding motion and the one of rotation). If friction is negligiblehow fast will the block slide?The force of gravity on the blockit has a name, it is called the block's weight Wcan be represented by a vertical arrow AB of length W, pointing straight down. That is not the direction in which the block can accelerate. However, the vector AB can also be resolved into two mutually perpendicular forces:

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